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After members of the neo-Nazi group National Action are jailed we look back at the racist member of right wing groups who was convicted of terrorism in Grimsby

He claimed to be a peaceful right wing activist in Grimsby who wanted to stand up for Britain’s “indigenous” people.

But loner Nathan Worrell was the secret neo-Nazi in Cromwell Street, a twisted racist who was trying to build bombs in his kitchen, inspired by a notorious nail bombing killer.

Even 10-years later, the trial of Worrell remains one of the most dramatic and truly horrifying cases that has been heard at Grimsby Crown Court.

And following the jailing of a cell of neo-Nazis and white supremacists last week for terrorism offences – including a couple who named their son Adolf – the similarities to the Worrell case are stark.

Both cases shone a light into the lives of right wing extremists and why anti-terrorism investigators now believe they hold as much of a threat as Islamist terrorist groups like ISIS.

At first, Worrell’s activities appeared to be limited to a vile campaign targeting a mixed race couple in the Willows Estate.

Officers were alerted after Worrell plastered stickers outside the home of a mother-of-one – branding her a “race-mixing slut”.

Flat full of Nazi literature

He focused his hate campaign on her and her husband, who was Bangladeshi born, and put stickers on the couple’s rear gate and on a lamp post near their home, reading: “Only inferior white women date outside their race. Be proud of your heritage. Don’t be a race-mixing slut.”

But, when police visited his flat in Cromwell Street, a much more worrying picture emerged that was to lead to a full blown terrorism investigation.

At first Worrell refused to let officers into his home but they forced their way in.

Inside, they discovered stacks of racist and neo-Nazi material, including five different types of sticker which had appeared outside the couple’s home in the Willows Estate.

Nathan Worrell was a member of a number of right-wing neo-Nazi groups and had expressed support for Soho killer David Copeland in items seized from his flat in Cromwell Road

Nathan Worrell was a member of a number of right-wing neo-Nazi groups and had expressed support for Soho killer David Copeland in items seized from his flat in Cromwell Road

But it was only then that the true horrific nature of what Worrell was doing became apparent.

There were numerous bomb-making manuals and the raw ingredients to make explosive devices. These included instructions on how to make detonators and what ingredients were needed for bombs.

He had bought fireworks and dozens of boxes of matches. What appeared to be an amateur attempt to make explosives actually used similar methods as neo-Nazi David Copeland, a right wing extremist who killed three people, including a pregnant woman, in a series of nail bomb attacks in London in 1999.

In fact among hundreds of Nazi pamphlets, leaflets, stickers and books was one with a chilling reference to the Soho killer. ‘Stand by Dave Copeland’, it said. ‘Leaderless resistance works. Combat 18 in the area!’

Shortly before Worrell’s arrest, the High Court in London ruled that Copeland should remain in prison for at least 50 years, ruling out his release until 2049 at the earliest, when he would be 73.

Worrell’s hoard of far-right material also included references to Adolf Hitler, the Nazi Party and the Ku Klux Klan. Extremist groups represented included Combat 18, with the 18 derived from Adolf Hitler’s initials. Other leaflets and flyers mentioned ‘Cleethorpes Combat 18’.

It was later discovered Worrell had also been a member of right-wing groups, the White Nationalist Party, the British People’s Party, the National Front, the Ku Klux Klan and the British National Party. Like Copeland, a fascination with Nazi and right wing ideology had progressed to actively becoming involved with the groups and then researching home made explosive devices and detonators.

Experts told the trial Worrell’s experiments included dismantling the fireworks in a way which could be used to build explosive devices and police suspected he had been starting to assemble a crude pipe bomb in a coffee jar when he was caught.

During the trial, Worrell denied possessing articles for terrorism purposes, including documents for making explosives and incendiary devices, 171 match heads, a large quantity of matches, several tubs of sodium chlorate, fireworks containing black powder, and containers of lighter fluid.

He also denied a racially aggravated public order offence by displaying racist stickers with intent to cause the mixed-race couple harassment, alarm or distress.

The court heard that he held “far-right political views”. When interviewed by police, he described himself as a white nationalist. He said he believed that this country belonged exclusively to white people – and that he was fighting for this country in a peaceful manner.

References to nail bomber David Copeland were found in Nathan Worrell's flat in Grimsby

References to nail bomber David Copeland were found in Nathan Worrell’s flat in Grimsby

But the prosecution claimed: “He was not merely a peaceful right-wing activist. He had more sinister, violent intentions.

“The very nature of the sticker campaign shows this defendant was not merely a collector of extreme right-wing items, but was active in taking steps to promote his ideology.

“He was plainly targeting ethnic minorities as part of his extreme right-wing views,” the prosecution claimed.

Heil Hitler texts

He had far-right political pamphlets and books – much of it Nazi – in his flat and he signed off text messages with “88”, a code for Heil Hitler. “He is undoubtedly a racist who follows the political views of the National Socialist or Nazi Party,” said the prosecution.

There were books giving two recipes for ‘how to make explosives’ and information on how to buy ordinary products which could be used. He had a large number of fireworks, some of which had been tampered with in order to remove the gun powder.

Other books in Worrell’s bedroom covered subjects including murder, contract killers and hit men, arson as a means of attack, guerrilla warfare, leaderless resistance and more references to nail bomber Copeland.

Worrell sent racist text messages to a friend in reaction to watching two television programmes, Crimewatch, and a documentary featuring David Baddiel about compensation owed to the Jewish Community following the Second World War.

He also had a Death’s Head as the wallpaper on one of his three mobile phones. He told police he supported Combat 18 “in terms of some of their policies”, but did not believe in taking violent action. He denied ever specifically ordering material from Combat 18. Some stickers he had, but claimed not to have ordered, referred to a “Cleethorpes Combat 18”.

He admitted distributing stickers for far-right political groups, sticking them on lamp posts and junction boxes around Grimsby. When asked what he thought the effect of such stickers would be on any minority groups living in the area, he said: “I don’t know. I don’t associate with them.”

One text included an image of Adolf Hitler with a halo round him and another attacked the country’s immigration policies and called Britain a “cesspit for scum”.

Just a sad loner, claimed defence

The defence portrayed Worrell as a “slightly sad loner” who had long standing far-right wing beliefs but could not even drive or afford to go to rallies and meetings.

They claimed his activism was limited to “leafleting” and denied there was any bomb plot.

Grimsby Crown Court heard Nathan Worrell had been trying to assemble bombs using gunpowder from fireworks, pictured here, and chemicals in the same way as Soho nail bomber David Copeland

Grimsby Crown Court heard Nathan Worrell had been trying to assemble bombs using gunpowder from fireworks, pictured here, and chemicals in the same way as Soho nail bomber David Copeland

“He is not a terrorist,” claimed the defence, which branded the prosecution case “completely over the top” and accused it of throwing“ everything, including the kitchen sink” at the case.

Worrell did not give evidence at his trial and in January 2008 he was convicted by the jury in less than four hours.

He was jailed for seven years and three months. It included six years for the terrorist offence, with a consecutive 15 months for the racist public order offence.

Judge John Reddihough told Worrell: “Perhaps the least I say about the extreme views you hold and the way we saw you express them in the documents and other items before the court, the better.

“Maybe the citizens of this country are entitled to hold such views but what they are not entitled to do is embark on criminal offences in furtherance of those extreme views.”

He told Worrell: “You were in possession of a large number of instruction manuals for making explosive and other devices that could be used to harm innocent people.

“You were in possession of other items which appeared to advocate the use of violence to promote the extreme right-wing views you held.

“Courts in this country must make it clear that terrorism, in any form, will not be tolerated.

“Any offence which involves any step towards terrorist acts must be firmly punished.”

Right win extremist Nathan Worrell who was convicted of terrorism offences in Grimsby

Right win extremist Nathan Worrell who was convicted of terrorism offences in Grimsby

After the case, it emerged that Worrell was born in Cleethorpes and grew up in Grimsby with his mother and sister. The last school he attended was Havelock School, Grimsby, and he was believed to have worked for a warehouse in the town as a packer. He also had a job picking cabbages.

At the time of his arrest, he was unemployed and was not believed to have held any long-term employment since leaving school.

After the sentencing, the husband targeted by Worrell’s racist leaflets said: “It is not long enough. He will be out in three or four years. He will probably come out and still hold the same racist beliefs.”

Worrell appealed against his sentence which was rejected.

It is thought Worrell was released in 2011 and his whereabouts are currently unknown.

Grimsby Telegraph

Thomas - Patatas - Bogunovic

Thomas – Patatas – Bogunovic

Six people have been convicted of being members of the banned extreme right wing neo-Nazi group National Action.

The organisation was formed in 2013 and proscribed as a banned group by the government in 2016.

A jury at Birmingham Crown Court found two men and a woman guilty today after three other men had admitted membership of the group before the trial.

Daniel Bogunovic, aged 27 of Crown Hills Rise, Leicester, Adam Thomas, aged 22, and 38-year-old Claudia Patatas − both of Waltham Gardens, Banbury, Oxfordshire − were all found guilty this morning.

Joel Wilmore, aged 24 of Bramhall Moor Lane, Stockport, Darren Fletcher, aged 28 of Kitchen Lane, Wednesfield, Wolverhampton and Nathan Pryke, aged 27 of Dartford Road, March, Cambridge, all previously admitted their membership.

Wilmore - Fletcher - Pryke

Wilmore – Fletcher – Pryke

They will be sentenced in due course.

All six were arrested on 3 January and charged on 8 January with being concerned in the commission, preparation and instigation of acts of terrorism under Section 41 of the Terrorism Act 2000; namely on suspicion of being a member of a proscribed organisation (National Action) contrary to sec 11 of the Terrorism Act.

Thomas was also found guilty of possessing information of a kind likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism contrary to s.58 of Terrorism Act 2000 (possessing bomb making instructions).

Bogunvic was found guilty of inciting racial hatred under Sec 18 (1) of the Public Order Act 1986 after National Action branded stickers were found displayed in the grounds of the Aston University complex in July 2016.

Joel Wilmore also pleaded guilty to possessing information of a kind likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism contrary to s.58 of Terrorism Act 2000 (possessing bomb making instructions).

Darren Fletcher pleaded guilty to five breaches of his criminal anti-social behaviour order.

The court heard how the group used several methods to disguise their contact with each other such as using pseudonyms through closed, encrypted messaging platforms as well as regularly meeting in person to spread their ideology.

Top to bottom and left to right: Thomas in KKK robes holding son; Thomas with knife; Patatas & Thomas with son; Fletcher, Thomas & Patatas; Thomas & Fletcher; Thomas with crossbow

Top to bottom and left to right: Thomas in KKK robes holding son; Thomas with knife; Patatas & Thomas with son; Fletcher, Thomas & Patatas; Thomas & Fletcher; Thomas with crossbow

Talking about today’s verdict, head of West Midlands Counter Terrorism Unit (WMCTU) Detective Chief Superintendent Matt Ward, said: “This result is a culmination of two years of painstaking work in the West Midlands and across the country to recognise and understand the threat of National Action.

“These individuals were not simply racist fantasists; we now know they were a dangerous, well-structured organisation. Their aim was to spread neo-Nazi ideology by provoking a race war in the UK and they had spent years acquiring the skills to carry this out. They had researched how to make explosives. They had gathered weapons. They had a clear structure to radicalise others. Unchecked they would have inspired violence and spread hatred and fear across the West Midlands.

“Today’s convictions have dealt a significant blow to National Action. We have dismantled their Midlands Chapter but that doesn’t mean the threat they pose will go away.

“Others on the periphery will take on leadership roles and so I ask for the public’s vigilance − if you see this group’s posters or stickers please report them to police − where there are new cells, we will intercept and prosecute them.”

Two men were convicted and sentenced earlier this year also for membership of National Action − Mikko Vehvilainen and Alex Deakin − however due to legal reasons restrictions were placed on reporting.

Vehvilainen - Deakin

Vehvilainen – Deakin

Vehvilainen − a 34-year-old lance corporal in the army − was jailed for eight years in April. Born in Finland, Vehvilainen was arrested by officers from West Midlands Counter Terrorism Unit (WMCTU) at his army base in Brecon, Powys in September 2017.

At an earlier hearing, Vehvilainen admitted a separate offence of being in possession of pepper spray.

Det Ch Supt Ward said: “Vehvilainen’s role typified the progress that National Action wanted; he was a non-commissioned officer in the British Army with access to young men who could be radicalised and recruited into the group. He was an incredibly dangerous individual and a key part of the National Action strategy.”

Alex Deakin (24) was also jailed for eight years for being a member of National Action, distributing extremist publications and two charges of possessing documents likely to be useful to a person preparing to commit an act of terrorism and distribution of a terrorist publication.

Top: Vehvilainen pictured performing Nazi salute Bottom left: Deakin and right: Vehvilainen's weaponry

Top: Vehvilainen pictured performing Nazi salute Bottom left: Deakin and right: Vehvilainen’s weaponry

Matt Ward continued: “Deakin had a long history with the far right movement, he held the mantle of regional coordinator to help facilitate online communications in the group. He turned it into a well organised cell in the midlands and as a result he’s serving a long sentence.

“Today’s guilty verdicts highlight the commitment by counter terrorism policing to tackle all forms of extremist ideology.

“We have seen many convictions over the past few years in connection with Syria-related terrorism and this work continues apace. But extreme groups such as National Action also have the potential to threaten public safety and security.

“We work tirelessly to counter terrorism. Our absolute priority is to ensure the safety and security of the people who live, work and visit the West Midlands area.

“If anyone has any suspicions over an individual’s behaviour and suspects them to be involved in this type of activity, I would urge you to report it to police as soon as possible. You can report suspicions online via ACT campaign’s website or call police confidentially on 0800 789 321. In an emergency dial 999.

“Suspicious activity is anything that seems out of place, unusual or just doesn’t seem to fit in with day-to-day life – Let us decide if it is important.”

West Midlands Police

Claudia Patatas and Adam Thomas named their baby Adolf out of "admiration" for Hitler

Claudia Patatas and Adam Thomas named their baby Adolf out of “admiration” for Hitler

Three people have been convicted of belonging to the banned neo-Nazi group National Action. Adam Thomas, 22, and his partner Claudia Patatas, 38, were found guilty with Daniel Bogunovic, 27, of being members of the far-right group – which was proscribed under anti-terror laws after it celebrated the murder of Labour MP Jo Cox.

The BBC can now tell the story of National Action and the threat posed by its members.

It appeared to be a normal home.

The property, in a quiet part of an Oxfordshire town, was occupied by a couple who had just welcomed their first child into the world.

Neighbours sometimes saw the pair taking their baby out in a pram.

The male, who often dressed in combat trousers, worked as a security guard. The woman – a part-time wedding photographer – had, until recently, worked in a clothes shop.

But inside their house Adam Thomas and his Portuguese partner Claudia Patatas had created a disturbing world.

Adam Thomas

Their bedroom was strewn with weapons – machetes, crossbows, an axe under the bed, a Nazi-style dagger.

In the hallway were pendants bearing a black sun – a symbol associated with the SS and the occult – and the insignia of the Ku Klux Klan. Cushions emblazoned with swastikas decorated the lounge. In the kitchen, there was a swastika-shaped pastry cutter.

The fridge was adorned with a poster by the banned neo-Nazi group National Action, declaring ‘Britain is ours – the rest must go’.

Adam Thomas with his son

A memory card hidden beneath a floorboard under the dining table contained several startling photographs of the couple.

In one, Thomas holds the flag of Nazi Germany, while Patatas cradles their baby. In another, they pose with another man – Darren Fletcher – who is performing a Nazi salute.

Darren Fletcher, Adam Thomas and Claudia Patatas

Darren Fletcher, Adam Thomas and Claudia Patatas

Other images found on a mobile phone show Thomas, dressed in the distinctive white costume of the KKK, looking down at his son through the eyeholes of a white, peaked hood.

The baby, a little over a month old at the time, had been given the name Adolf by his parents – in tribute to the leader of Nazi Germany.

The pictures were found by counter terrorism detectives, who arrived at the property early in the morning of 3 January this year to arrest Thomas and Patatas for membership of National Action – a group that had been banned under terrorism legislation in December 2016.

Alex Davies (l) and Ben Raymond

Alex Davies (l) and Ben Raymond

National Action was founded in 2013 by Ben Raymond, now 29, and Alex Davies, now 24.

At the time Raymond, a recent politics graduate from the University of Essex, and avowed neo-Nazi, was living in Bognor Regis. After university, he had drifted into a job as a double-glazing salesman and would go on to work at a job centre, assisting claimants.

Much of his free time was spent online immersed in disturbing extreme right-wing content. He designed memes, edited videos, and wrote long diatribes, including for the obscure Integralist Party, which was seeking a “nationwide fascist army” for its “racial religion that inspires and demands fanaticism”.

Ben Raymond

It was that online activity that first attracted Davies, a University of Warwick student from Carmarthen, and member of the British National Party. By then, the party was in steep decline from its best ever performance in European elections four years earlier.

The pair believed that in recent years, British far-right organisations had diluted their message by seeking to appeal beyond their core support.

National Action’s founders determined that, in contrast, it would be unashamedly racist and overtly neo-Nazi.

Alex Davies

It had all the characteristics of post-war neo-Nazism – hatred of non-white and Jewish people, a worldview entirely based on racism, veneration of white “Aryans”, and lionisation of the Nazi era and its worst war criminals.

Davies was eventually forced out of Warwick university for his far-right political activities, and moved back to Wales, where he eventually found work as an insurance salesman.

The pair believed young people across the UK would eagerly embrace the group’s toxic blend of Hitler worship, Holocaust denial, and malicious conspiracy theories.

In reality, it would never exceed 100 members, and those it did attract were a disparate set of fanatics united by various deviancies and irrational hatreds.

No attempt was made at engaging in democratic politics, with the organisation instead regarding itself as a youth-based street movement. Its logo was strikingly similar to the paramilitary arm of the Nazi party – the Sturmabteilung, or SA

Recruitment focused on those in their teens and 20s, although some of those targeted were children of secondary school age.

The group’s strategy initially involved leafleting university campuses. But it soon turned to organising aggressive publicity stunts and city-centre demonstrations, with activities chronicled on the group’s website and social media channels.

As it grew, National Action developed into a clandestine network of small, regional networks, with senior figures in each cooperating at a national level.

National Action's regional map

National Action’s regional map

Members, who dressed in black during demonstrations, promoted the idea that the UK was on the brink of a “race war”, and that a predatory elite was deliberately encouraging immigration in an attempt to destroy the native white population.

The group claimed to be patriotic, but was hostile to all domestic institutions, the rule of law, the democratic process, and everyone who did not share its worldview.

Politicians and other public servants were a particular focus of hatred.

During one speech, senior National Action member Matthew Hankinson said they would ensure that “traitors” ended up “hanging from lampposts”.

“We must be ruthless – and if innocent people are cut down in the process, then so be it,” he said.

The organisation was openly genocidal and said that all Jewish and non-white people would have to go. In one document it declared that: “It is with glee that we will enact the final solution across Europe.”

But National Action did not restrict itself to admiration for the Nazis. Its members also took inspiration from the Khmer Rouge, the brutal regime that ruled Cambodia in the late 1970s under the Marxist leader Pol Pot; the radical right-wing Norwegian terrorist and mass murderer Anders Breivik; and even the Islamic State group.

Anders Breivik

Anders Breivik

Online, the group announced: “We are the white jihad” and “Our motto is ‘Long Live Death!’ because only those who are willing to die for their beliefs are truly alive.”

The logic of such ideas ends in violence – and violence, both planned and executed, is what they generated.

In 2015, Zack Davies, a 25-year-old member from Mold, North Wales, used a hammer and machete to attack a Sikh dentist in a Tesco store because of his skin colour.

Davies shouted, “White power” during the assault, for which he was later convicted of attempted murder.

He had earlier posed for a selfie in front of a National Action flag while holding a blade.

Zack Davies

A few months later, Jack Coulson, a then 17-year-old member from Bradford, West Yorkshire, was arrested by counter terrorism police after posting images of a homemade pipe-bomb on Snapchat, along with threats against Muslims.

Coulson, who would be convicted of making explosives, had joined National Action months earlier and was associating with older members both in person and online.

Jack Coulson dressed in a Nazi uniform

Jack Coulson dressed in a Nazi uniform

On the day in June 2016 that Labour MP Jo Cox was murdered by the white supremacist Thomas Mair, the teenager took to social media to say: “There’s one less race traitor in Britain thanks to this man.”

“He’s a hero, we need more people like him to butcher the race traitors,” Coulson continued.

An official National Action Twitter account also celebrated the murder, stating: “Don’t let this man’s sacrifice go in vain,” and “Only 649 MPs to go #WhiteJihad.”

By 2016, Christopher Lythgoe, a former regional leader for the North West, was heading up the whole group.

Raymond and Davies remained influential figures in the group, but it was Lythgoe, now 32, who sought to enforce structure and rigour on the entire organisation.

He lived with his parents in Warrington, worked infrequently in warehouses, and spent much of his time trying to turn National Action into a paramilitary-style organisation. He drew up detailed manuals, explained things like as how to carry flags correctly, and sent hectoring emails to other members.

In one, he wrote: “Just a reminder guys that National Action now operates what I like to call a No-Deadweight Policy. That means everyone trains in case we need it. We don’t carry anyone. No exceptions.”

He added: “Imagine what it will be like when we have 20, 30, 50 or more guys who can ALL punch unconscious an 18-stone adversary. AND we will fight as one disciplined body. That’s what I would call formidable unit. So like I said, We all train.”


Training included boxing, martial arts, and a series of outdoor training camps. One such camp – where participants were expected to “drink mead and live like Vikings” – ended in farce when one neo-Nazi ended up sleeping in a phone box to escape the rain and snow.

One need not consider the group’s paramilitary fantasies realistic to find them troubling and dangerous.

The threat National Action posed came from the hatred it encouraged, which generated a very real threat to the general public and anyone chosen as a target by those it radicalised.

A government assessment in late 2016 concluded the group was “concerned in terrorism”, and described it as “virulently racist, anti-Semitic and homophobic”. It became the first far-right group to be proscribed in this country since World War Two.

National Action promoting one of its "conferences"

National Action promoting one of its “conferences”

Ahead of the ban, the group’s leadership came together via a secure conference call, including Lythgoe, founders Raymond and Davies, and regional organisers.

Lythgoe insisted the group carry on as usual – just without the name or more obvious public trappings.

In the days before the ban, he sent his followers a series of emails.

“Long term we’ll keep moving forward just as we have been,” stated one.

Another, sent to the regional leaders, said: “Make sure you maintain contact with ALL your members. Reassure them that they will be personally ok as long as they don’t promote NA from Friday on. Make sure that they understand that the SUBSTANCE of NA is the people, our talents, the bonds between us, our ideas, and our sustained force of will. All of that will continue into the future. We’re just shedding one skin for another. All genuinely revolutionary movements in the past have needed to exist partly underground. These are exciting times.”

One of those on Lythgoe’s mailing list was Alex Deakin, leader for the Midlands.

Less than two hours after getting the email, Deakin used the encrypted messaging app Telegram to create a chat group that became his main regional organising tool for National Action after the ban.

He called it the Triple KKK Mafia, a reference to the Ku Klux Klan. Over time, the chat group would have as many as 21 people in it.

He created another one – called Inner – which contained a select band of seven from the larger chat group.


Deakin, now 24, from Birmingham, was a university student who had been radicalised on the internet.

In September 2016, after spending two years studying in Aberystwyth, he dropped out and transferred to a history course at the University of Coventry.

He told one contact his path to National Action involved “getting redpilled by forums, spending years arguing online, and then finally deciding to take action when this group impressed me”.

Deakin regularly reported back to Lythgoe and co-founder Raymond, telling them about his efforts to recruit new members, organise existing ones, and spread National Action propaganda.

Alex Deakin

Messages in the year before the ban show the extent of his delusional ambitions.

In an exchange about targeting working class cities, he wrote: “We should move to radicalise these areas, turning them into NI [Northern Irish] style sectarian ghettoes would be the first target to fermenting race war.”

In correspondence with Lythgoe, Deakin stated: “Like the IRA and Viet Cong we’d need to have embedded local support among the communities we’d fight in; streets and cul-de-sacs would function as barracks as supportive locals would shelter us, and it would be necessary to fade into the background at moment’s notice.”

The nature of such conversations only intensified once the group had been proscribed.

In the Midlands, the organisation ceased overt campaigning, but members continued to communicate, meet up, seek new recruits, and encourage one another’s worst tendencies.

There were explicit references to the the fact that National Action still existed.

In one message, Deakin said: “Anyway the Midlands group continues under the name Triple K Mafia.”

In another, Adam Thomas wrote: “So since NA has been destroyed, the leadership generally of NA agreed it’s to be disbanded. No attempt at revival. But the Midlands branch of NA, which is just 17-20 of us, have decided to ignore this… Midlands will continue the fight alone.”

Messages in the Telegram group, numbering in the thousands, show members using violent racist language, discussing their desire for a “race war”, and fantasising about the murder of those they hated.

Deakin wrote that all Jewish people should be “burned”, and that Chinese and black people should be turned into “biofuel”.

A member from Wolverhampton, Darren Fletcher, 28, referred to Thomas Mair, the killer of Jo Cox, when he asked: “Why aren’t there more Mairs out there? We need a good few hundred of them to sort out these anti-white MPs.”

Darren Fletcher and Adam Thomas

Darren Fletcher and Adam Thomas

Fletcher, a truck driver and old friend of Adam Thomas, had once been jailed after posting videos on YouTube of himself on stage at an extremist music event dressed in a KKK outfit, hanging a life-sized golliwog doll from a noose.

When Fletcher wrote that people in government should be killed, he received support from Thomas, who said: “I agree bump them off but there’s 600MPs unless you take them all down in one go they will just replace each other.”

Claudia Patatas, who studied to postgraduate level in Portugal before moving to the UK over a decade ago, had spent years as a marketing professional.

In public she provided bland quotes to corporate journals, while in private she wrote messages exclaiming: “All Jews must be put to death” and “bring back those concentration camps.”

Claudia Patatas and a KKK flag in her home

Claudia Patatas and a KKK flag in her home

She told members of the group that “Adolf is life” and was enthusiastic about holding a celebration for Hitler’s birthday, recalling one she had attended in Lisbon years earlier.

“We had a cake with the fuhrer face,” she described, before adding, “I did struggle to slice his face

Perhaps the most dangerous member of the group was a serving lance corporal in the British Army.

Mikko Vehvilainen, now 34, joined the Army in 2012, having earlier spent time in the navy in Finland, the homeland of his father.

In an email to one friend, he wrote: “I’m only in to learn useful combat skills.”

The married father of young children, an adherent of a white supremacist interpretation of Christianity called Christian Identity, was a senior National Action member obsessed with ideas about the collapse of civilisation and racial war.

Mikko Vehvilainen

Mikko Vehvilainen

In a diary entry last year, beneath the heading “key points for leadership meeting”, he referred to “later stages terrorism, civil disorder, destruction of infrastructure and power grid”.

In another document, he said there a was a need to be “prepared to fight and die for your race in a possible last stand for our survival”.

“Every part of me wants war. There is no other way,” he wrote in one message on Telegram.

His personal weapons collection, stockpiled for what he appeared to regard as imminent conflicts, included legally held firearms – as well as knives, machetes, knuckle dusters, a crossbow, a bow and arrow, pepper spray, handcuffs, and a so-called war hammer bearing the Biblical inscription: “There is no peace, says the Lord, for the wicked.”

Weapons found at Vehvilainen's home - and photo of him performing a Nazi salute

Weapons found at Vehvilainen’s home – and photo of him performing a Nazi salute

The solider, latterly based at the Army’s Welsh headquarters in Powys, actively sought recruits from those serving under him in the Royal Anglian Regiment.

Three men holding the rank of private were invited into the main Telegram group after Vehvilainen told Deakin they were “committed” Nazis.

One of them, Mark Barrett, wrote racist messages in the chat group, and had Vehvilainen, another of the soldiers, and a National Action member called Nathan Pryke, over to his army property where they spent an evening firing arrows at a burning cross in the back garden.

Vehvilainen, who served in Afghanistan, was also keen that civilian neo-Nazis join him in the forces, telling them: “If we get enough of us into the Army, we’ll be in the right place when things start to collapse.”

He wrote in the Inner chat group that National Action members should focus on gaining “military and key civil positions”.

Nathan Pryke

Nathan Pryke

Four National Action members in his circle had been, or were, attempting to join the Army: Alex Deakin, Adam Thomas, Nathan Pryke, a 27-year-old a van driver from Cambridgeshire, and Joel Wilmore, 24, originally from Lincolnshire, who had served in the Territorial Army before entering a sensitive job as an information security expert. This involved acting as an “ethical hacker” in order to test the strength of organisational IT systems.

Vehvilainen advised Thomas and offered to act as a referee of good character.

Thomas, in turn, asked if he could buy a gun from Vehvilainen and whether anybody would notice if assault rifles were stolen from his base.

But, before anything more could happen, the group was disrupted.

For several months, detectives from West Midlands Police had been investigating an incident in July 2016 during which several men had pasted National Action stickers at the Aston University campus in Birmingham.

In spring 2017, some of the suspects were arrested, including Alex Deakin.

Incriminating chat groups were found on his phone, and that of another man who cannot be named for legal reasons.

After being released under investigation, Deakin sent a panicked email to several National Action contacts. “My seized phone is full of texts that will mark me as an organizer,” he wrote. “I understand if you despise me for this sloppiness (it really couldn’t have been worse if I tried).”

Alex Deakin

Alex Deakin

Deakin’s “sloppiness” led to three trials at Birmingham Crown Court this year, many details of which can only be reported now that the final one has concluded.

The first, which ended in April, saw Deakin himself, Vehvilainen and soldier Mark Barrett strand trial accused of National Action membership.

Barrett was acquitted, but his co-defendants were convicted and received eight-year prison sentences.

The three had been arrested in September 2017, along with the other two soldiers in the chat group, both of whom were released without charge.

Only Barrett elected to give evidence, telling the court that he had not joined National Action despite being in the Telegram chat group and that he regretted his racist postings.

Mikko Vehvilainen

Mikko Vehvilainen

Deakin was also convicted of two counts of possessing documents useful to someone preparing an act of terrorism – including bomb-making manuals and an instructional book for white extremists – which were found on his laptop.

He was further convicted of distributing a terrorist publication, for sending a document called Ethnic Cleansing Operations to the National Action co-founder Ben Raymond and two other contacts.

Vehvilainen was cleared of stirring up racial hatred for using a Christian Identity online forum to write posts. Among other things, he wrote: “I have vowed to fight the Jew forever in any way possible,” and used the word “beasts” to refer to black people.

Referring to his position in the Army, he had written: “There are ways around everything and I’ve simply learned to avoid beasts.”

He added: “The sooner they’re eliminated the better.”

It is understood that both Vehvilainen and Barrett have since been discharged from the Army. The other two arrested soldiers were disciplined but not discharged, although one has since left voluntarily.

Lt Col Jackie Fletcher, from the Army personnel branch, described them as “exceptional cases”.

“These are very rare in the Army,” she said. “The Army’s value and standards are very clear for soldiers and any individual found to breach those value and standards will have action taken against them.”

The second trial, which ended in May, saw Deakin and three other men convicted of stirring up racial hatred in relation to the sticker campaign at Aston University – Daniel Bogunovic, 27, a warehouse worker and beekeeper from Leicester, Chad Wiliams-Allen, 27, a pre-ban National Action member and welder from West Bromwich, as well as a man in his early 20s who cannot be identified for legal reasons.

Chad Williams-Allen, Daniel Bogunovic and Alex Deakin

Chad Williams-Allen, Daniel Bogunovic and Alex Deakin

In the third trial, that of Thomas, Patatas and Bogunovic, three other defendants pleaded guilty to membership of National Action in pre-trial hearings. They were Darren Fletcher, Nathan Pryke, and Joel Wilmore. Wilmore also admitted to possessing terrorist information, namely a document called Homemade Molotov Cocktails.

Thomas, who was also convicted of possessing a bomb-making manual, was the only one to give evidence.

The former Amazon security guard admitted being a racist and told jurors he had been exposed to such beliefs from a young age, adding that his stepfather was in a “white power band” and had started shaving Thomas’s head at the age of five.

He also described telling a female Holocaust survivor, whom he visited with a government de-radicalisation mentor, that he “couldn’t see” how she could have endured the WW2 Nazi death camps.

Thomas told jurors that, aged 18, he went to Israel and considered converting to Judaism because it would have allowed him to join the Israeli military

The BBC has spoken to people who knew Thomas in Israel.

David Simpkins, who shared a room with him at the Machon Meir yeshiva in Jerusalem, said his roommate used the name Avi Ben Abraham.

Simpkins said Thomas had described a “horrible childhood which he characterised as a situation of constantly being bullied, growing up with far-right British extremists who were also neo-Nazis”.

Thomas disclosed that he first “started learning about Judaism to discover why he was supposed to hate them,” Mr Simpkins recalled.

He described Thomas as “extremely intelligent” but said he had “an extreme approach to Judaism” and wanted to join a small fringe group which regards most Jewish people as heretics.

“The rabbis decided that Adam needed to deal with his childhood professionally and return to convert with a clear head,” he said. “He was making the common mistake many who desire conversion make, which is to replace one psychological extreme with another.”

Avishai Grosser, who works with converts, told the BBC that Thomas, who “knew big proportions of the Torah by heart”, dropped out of several conversion programmes and eventually ended up on the streets before returning to the UK.

It is understood that after he returned, he told people in far-right circles that his time in Israel related to an involvement with the white supremacist Christian Identity movement.

It was around this time that he got to know Patatas through National Action chat groups. They met for the first time at a pub social in December 2016 and soon moved in together.

Adam Thomas in Israel

Adam Thomas in Israel

Before proscription, National Action may have been “perceived as just one of those groups who incited racial hatred and were racist”, says Det Chief Supt Matt Ward from the West Midlands Counter Terrorism Unit.

He explains how the understanding of the threat it posed “changed considerably”.

Events after it was banned, he says, show: “A really dangerous, well-structured organisation at the heart of a neo-Nazi ideology that seeks to divide communities, is preparing to instigate and wage a race war within the United Kingdom and has spent years acquiring skills, tactics, weapons, recruiting and training people to be able to do that.”

As in the Midlands, National Action had continued operating covertly in the North West, but had continued more overtly in several other English regions and Scotland using the aliases NS131 and Scottish Dawn.

There are ongoing inquiries into people associated with the group, and several trials have already taken place elsewhere in the UK.

At the Old Bailey in July, Christopher Lythgoe and Matthew Hankinson, both from the North West, were convicted of membership offences in a trial that saw another man plead guilty to threatening to kill a female police officer and preparing an act of terrorism by buying a machete in order to kill Labour MP Rosie Cooper.

Mr Justice Jay, sentencing Lythgoe and Hankinson to eight and six years in prison respectively, said their “truly evil and dystopian vision” could never “have been achieved through the activities of National Action, a very small group operating at the very periphery of far-right wing extremism”.

But he said, “The real risk to society inheres instead in the carrying out of isolated acts of terror,” inspired by what he described as the group’s “perverted ideology”.

What of the National Action founders who inspired such hatred?

We found Ben Raymond and Alex Davies living at separate addresses in Swansea.

Both were arrested in September 2017 on suspicion of membership of National Action but have been told they will not be charged. Raymond was also arrested on suspicion of possessing terrorist material and remains under investigation.

The police enquiries relate to their involvement with the far-right group NS131, which had been created after National Action had been banned. Last year, it was also proscribed.

NS131 promotional image

NS131 promotional image

The men have continued to make public pronouncements.

Earlier this year, Davies used an online neo-Nazi radio station to call for far-right activists to engage in a campaign of “direct action” against the Labour MP who succeeded Jo Cox as the MP for Batley and Spen.

Raymond used the same radio station to discuss the trial of Lythgoe and Hankinson while it was ongoing and declare the defendants “innocent men”.

The BBC asked both Raymond and Davies for an interview, but they declined.

We wanted to ask whether they accept any responsibility for all that has happened and about their relationship with National Action members since proscription.

For example, a private gym in Warrington set up by group leader Lythgoe for violent training sessions was made possible by £1,500 given to him by Davies – who then visited it along with members of the group after the ban.

Raymond continued communicating with members of National Action, post-proscription, via encrypted emails and applications.

He was an active member of both the Midlands Telegram groups – musing on racial theory, engaging in anti-Semitism, discussing his correspondence with neo-Nazis abroad, and lecturing the others on the threat from infiltrators.

On the day National Action was banned, Raymond had emailed several contacts, including Deakin and Lythgoe, to say he was “super excited about working on all the new projects”. Later chat messages show Deakin saying Raymond was responsible for designing propaganda material after proscription.

A hidden webpage containing Raymond’s designs over several years, which includes propaganda drawings depicting sexual violence, suggests he created logos for several proposed groups in the period after the National Action ban.

Deakin also kept on reporting back to Raymond – in the same way he had done before proscription – sending him messages about, for example, building dossiers on “problematic” individuals and a sinister idea about creating fake “rabidly anti-white propaganda” and “rabidly pro-Jewish propaganda to push people over the edge”.

When the BBC returned to Swansea with a television camera and approached Raymond in the street outside his bedsit, he swore at us and fled inside, refusing to answer questions.

What will happen to the National Action network in the longer term is unclear.

Already proscribed under two aliases – NS131 and Scottish Dawn – it may yet be banned under others, too.

The Islamist group al-Muhajiroun, based around the notorious British radical preacher Anjem Choudary, has been proscribed under nine other names, but the network of individuals has persisted and been involved in many acts of terrorism.

National Action is not the first violent neo-Nazi group in this country since WW2.

In the 1960s, members of several organisations attacked synagogues and engaged in paramilitary-style training. The far-right group Combat 18 was later involved in multiple acts of violence and intimidation. In the late 1990s, the London nail bomber David Copeland was an activist in the now defunct National Socialist Movement.

David Copeland who bombed the Admiral Duncan pub in Soho and other targets in London

David Copeland who bombed the Admiral Duncan pub in Soho and other targets in London

The neo-Nazi threat in this country, while persistent, is not large. But it is potent in that those radicalised by its ideas have given themselves to such a violent and hateful creed that some terrorist activity will inevitably follow.

The lies espoused by the extreme right – of Aryan supremacy and global Jewish conspiracies – are out there, old ideas spread by modern means, their promoters emboldened in and by the fractious political climate.

The danger also appears to be growing, with police reporting an increase in the number of foiled far-right terror plots – five since March 2017 – and the murder of Jo Cox and the Finsbury Park vehicle attack clear evidence of what radicalised individuals can do.

Last month, the UK’s most senior counter terrorism officer, Met Assistant Commissioner Neil Basu, told MPs that around 80% of the 700 live terror investigations were focused on Islamist Jihadists, with around 20% now focused on others, including a “significant number of right-wing ideological threats”.

In the wake of the terrorist attacks in the UK last year, an official review recommended an increased role for MI5 in tackling extreme right-wing terrorism, with the aim being to ensure equivalence in how terrorism is dealt with, irrespective of the ideology that inspires it.

Implementation of recommendation has started, with the security service beginning to take the lead for an area that has previously been the preserve of the police.

BBC News

Claudia Patatas and Adam Thomas named their baby Adolf out of "admiration" for Hitler

Claudia Patatas and Adam Thomas named their baby Adolf out of “admiration” for Hitler

A couple who named their baby after Adolf Hitler have been found guilty of being members of a banned terrorist group.

Adam Thomas, 22, and Claudia Patatas, 38, from Banbury, along with Daniel Bogunovic, 27, from Leicester, were charged with being in National Action.

Birmingham Crown Court heard the couple gave their child the middle name Adolf in honour of the Nazi leader.

Jurors saw images of Thomas in Ku Klux Klan robes while cradling his baby.

The Neo-Nazi terrorist group National Action, founded in 2013, was outlawed under anti-terror legislation three years later after it celebrated the murder of Labour MP Jo Cox.

‘White supremacy’

Prosecutors said the East Midlands chapter of the group “shed one skin for another” and “rebranded” after being banned.

They said the case was about “a specific type of terror… born out of fanatical and tribal belief in white supremacy”.

Thomas told the court that the pictures showing him wearing KKK clothing were “just play”, but he admitted being a racist.

Thomas was also found guilty of having a copy of terrorist manual the Anarchist Cookbook.

Adam Thomas has described his "admiration" for Nazi leader Adolf Hitler

Adam Thomas has described his “admiration” for Nazi leader Adolf Hitler

Thomas and Patatas had two machetes, one with a serrated 18in (46cm) blade, in the bedroom where their baby son slept.

A police search of their home in January also found one of two crossbows just a few feet from the baby’s crib, the jury was told.

Also found was a pastry cutter shaped like a Swastika in a kitchen drawer, as well as pendants, flags and clothing emblazoned with symbols of the Nazi-era SS and National Action.

Barnaby Jameson QC, prosecuting, said a deleted Skype log was recovered from Thomas’s laptop.

He said the messages sent between two parties spoke of National Action being “destroyed”, with its leaders agreeing to disband with “no attempt at revival”.

Reading from the log, Mr Jameson said: “But the Midlands branch of NA, which is just 17-20 of us, have decided to ignore this and we’ve renamed ourselves the Thule Combat League.

“Traitors. Midlands will continue the fight alone.”

Jurors reached unanimous verdicts after 12 hours of deliberating. The three defendants will be sentenced on 14 December.
BBC News

A man has been convicted of having explosives, weapons and ammunition following a joint investigation by police in Hertfordshire and Counter Terrorism officers from the Met and the Eastern Region Special Operations Unit (ERSOU).

Warren Snedden, 44 (05.05.73) of Longcroft Lane, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire was today, Tuesday, 27 March, found guilty at Woolwich Crown Court of having an explosive substance.

Snedden had previously pleaded guilty to a number of other offences including: possession of documents containing information likely to be useful for terrorist purposes; possession of firearms and ammunition; and, production of cannabis.

Police were alerted to a suspicious transaction on an online auction site in July 2017, where a number of chemicals associated with the production of the explosive TATP were purchased. Further enquiries linked the purchases to Snedden.

A search warrant was carried out on 29 September 2017 by Hertfordshire Constabulary at his address in Welwyn Garden City, where officers found the chemicals in Snedden’s bedroom, along with a number of tilt switches, that are often used in the production of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

Police also found component parts of a firearm, an air rifle and over 200 rounds of ammunition – all items Snedden was specifically prohibited from possessing, having previously been convicted of an armed robbery offence in 2001. A small number of cannabis plants were also found growing in his garden.

Snedden’s digital devices were seized and later examined. Detectives found copies of terrorist-related manuals and documents detailing how to make and create home-made ammunition, weapons and explosives.

Snedden was charged and remanded in custody; he appeared at Westminster Magistrates’ Court on 2 October 2017, and his case was subsequently referred on to Woolwich Crown Court for trial.

Commander Clarke Jarrett, Head of the Met’s Counter Terrorism Command, said: “Snedden never gave a full explanation as to what he was planning to do with the array of chemicals, weaponry and ammunition he had stockpiled. What is clear is that what he was doing was putting both himself, his neighbours and the public in great danger.

“This was a joint investigation between the Met’s Counter Terrorism Command and colleagues from Hertfordshire Constabulary, as well officers from ERSOU’s counter terrorism policing unit. The excellent work across all three has led to a number of dangerous components and weapons being taken out of circulation.

“The case is also a further reminder of the need to be ever-vigilant and I would urge anyone who sees any suspicious activity or behaviour to ACT and report it to police.”

Any suspicious behaviour or activity can be reported via the online tool at: or by calling the Anti-Terrorist Hotline on 0800 789 321.

Detective Superintendent Glen Channer, Head of Counter Terrorism Policing for ERSOU, said: “Although we may never understand why Snedden stockpiled these items and was viewing such material, there is no doubt that he posed a very real threat to society.

“This case was a great example of agencies working together in order to prevent someone from causing harm, and removing dangerous weapons and chemicals from circulation.

“Last week saw the launch of the new Action Counter Terrorism campaign which urges people to be vigilant to suspicious activity such as the ordering of illegal firearms or the gathering of chemical materials so this is a timely reminder for people to be alert and report anything they find concerning.”

Snedden was convicted of the following offences:

Two counts of having an explosive substance; two counts of possession of a prohibited weapon; two counts of possession of a firearm without a certificate; possession of ammunition without a certificate; possession of ammunition when prohibited; possession of a firearm by a person previously convicted of crime; three counts of possession of a document containing information useful for terrorist purposes; production of cannabis.

Met Police

A man has denied preparing an act of terrorism and threatening to kill people attending a Gay Pride event at a Cumbrian pub.

Ethan Stables, from Barrow, admitted possession of an explosive substance and possession of documents likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism.

The 19-year-old appeared at Leeds Crown Court via video link.

Judge Peter Collier QC remanded him in custody to go on trial in January.

It is alleged that in June, Mr Stables searched the internet for material relating to a number of far right groups and, separately, information on the manufacture of explosives.

Prosecutors said he made made threats to kill in a private Facebook group, called “National Socialists Union standing against New World Order”.

He is also accused of carrying out reconnaissance of a pub in Barrow which was hosting a Gay Pride evening the same month.

BBC News

Ryan McGee, 20, of Mellor Street, Eccles, was sentenced at the Old Bailey after admitting making explosives and possessing terrorist literature

Ryan McGee made this home-made bomb filled with shrapnel

Ryan McGee made this home-made bomb filled with shrapnel

A ‘self-radicalised’ soldier who became an EDL fanatic while constructing a potentially lethal nail bomb in his bedroom has been jailed for two years.

Ryan McGee, 20, constructed a homemade bomb packed with 181 metal screws, bits of glass and explosives inside a pickle jar which could have killed or maimed if detonated.

The device sparked a bomb scare after police discovered it while searching his home on Mellor Street, Eccles, as part of an unconnected investigation in November last year.

Experts say the powerful bomb was just a ‘simple step’ from completion.




Officers also discovered an arsenal of guns and knives and extremist right-wing material in the first-floor bedroom, which was draped in English Defence League flags.

Crucially, bomb-making manual The Anarchist Cookbook was also found.

McGee admitted that between May 31 2013 and November 29 2013 at Salford he possessed a document containing information of a kind likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism.

He has also pleaded guilty to a second charge that between September 1 2013 and September 3 2013 at Salford he made an explosive device.

Jailing him, Recorder of London Brian Barker said: “The fact of the matter is any explosive device in the wrong hands could cause untold misery to anyone on the receiving end.

“Sadly, we live in a violent age. Let’s be quite clear that any experimentation by anybody with these kinds of weapons must lead to severe sentences.

“What you have lost is your reputation and your future but I hope in due course you can make amends for that.”

Police originally raided the property as they suspected brother Steven, 20, of possessing child abuse images.

But following the discovery, Ryan – who was was serving in Paderborn, Germany, with 5th Battalion the Rifles – was detained at his barracks and returned to Britain.

Private McGee, a former Salford City Academy pupil, told officers he was ‘just experimenting’ with the ingredients but was charged and later admitted making explosives and possession of a document for terrorist purposes.

He joined the army in 2012 and had shown an interest in far-right parties such as the British National Party and the EDL since his early teens.

Disgusting racist rants posted on social media and kept in a handwritten diary revealed his hatred of immigration and admiration for Adolf Hitler and other far-right leaders.

In March 2013 he attended an EDL rally in Manchester city centre and regularly uploaded pictures of himself wearing or posing with EDL clothing and flags.

His computer also contained footage of a neo-Nazi beheading in eastern Europe.

The court heard McGee kept a journal entitled Ryan’s Story Book with stickers of Scooby Doo and birds on the front filled with drawings of guns, machetes, knuckledusters and knives and images of several paramilitary soldiers.

It also contained references to right-wing groups such as the National Front, KKK and BNP, the court heard.

He downloaded a number of extreme videos and his laptop had links to websites including gore videos, French Skinheads, Russian Racism, Handguns for sale UK and Germany, and YouTube videos of EDL marches against Muslims and Nazi youth.

The prosecutor accepted he was not a terrorist and that he didn’t intend to help a terrorist group.

Defending, Antony Chinn QC said McGee had been an immature teenager at the time, as demonstrated by the Scooby Doo notebook.

He said: “Although he accepts he made the device he never intended to put it to any violent purpose.”

McGee, a fifth generation Army man, was “a bit of a loner” who was brought up with far-right views, he said.

The bomb has been branded ‘viable’ by anti-terror officers and only needed to be hooked up to an electric current to become useable.

He had conducted internet searches on how to make detonators as well as experimenting with improvised booby traps.

Detectives did not find evidence McGee was planning a specific attack or had identified a target.

He remains a member of the armed forces but that is expected to be reviewed after his sentencing at the Old Bailey.

Detective Superintendent Simon Barraclough, from the North West Counter Terrorism Unit described McGee as a ‘self-radicalised’ individual who developed an unhealthy infatuation with explosives.

He aid: “He was obsessed with guns and explosives and this had drawn him into the military.

“He was a self-radicalised individual who was in possession of some extremist right-wing material.

“What he had produced was a completely viable device. If it had been connected to a power source it would have been ready to go.

“By it’s very nature this device was extremely dangerous.

“It had the capability of causing very serious injury to people, which ultimately means that it had the capability to kill people.

“It’s very difficult to say how dangerous an item like that is. It clearly depends where it’s placed, the positioning of it and exactly how many people are around it.

“Human beings are very fragile things and this bomb had the potential to do a lot of damage.”




Manchester Evening News